"We liked the way he hit in Spring Training," Dodgers manager Don Mattingly said.
Romak was hitting .048 in 15 games after being called up May 27 when Carl Crawford went on the disabled list.
Robinson's only Major League service was four at-bats over four games with the Royals in 2012, so he considered his callup for a game in Kansas City "a weird coincidence."
As a left-handed-hitting first baseman, the same as starter Adrian Gonzalez, Robinson will primarily provide a bat off the bench.
"If that's what they want me to do, that's what I'll do," said Robinson, the seventh non-roster player from Spring Training to make it to the big leagues with the Dodgers this year.
Ken Gurnick is a reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.