Silverio, considered one of the organization's better outfield prospects a year ago, was seriously injured in a January auto accident in his native Dominican Republic and missed the entire 2012 season.
Silverio suffered a serious concussion and other injuries, eventually undergoing Tommy John surgery on his right (throwing) elbow in May.
The Marlins must pay the Dodgers $50,000 and cannot send him down to the Minor Leagues for a full season without first offering him back to the Dodgers for $25,000. Silverio was the sixth player picked Thursday.
Silverio, 25, was coming off a breakthrough Double-A season in his eighth professional year, which included four seasons in the Dominican Rookie League.
The late bloomer hit .306 with 16 homers, 85 RBIs and 90 runs for Double-A Chattanooga in 2011 and was added to the 40-man roster last November to protect him from that Rule 5 Draft. He was outrighted to Triple-A Albuquerque Nov. 4 to clear space on the 40-man roster.
The Dodgers selected two players in the Triple-A phase of the Rule 5 Draft -- infielder Elevys Gonzalez from the Pirates' Double-A roster and right-handed pitcher Hector Nelo from the Nationals' Double-A roster.
Gonzalez, 23, is a switch-hitter and batted a combined .206 with six homers and 35 RBIs with Class A Bradenton and Double-A Altoona in 2012. Nelo, 26, had a 2.73 ERA in 47 relief appearances for Double-A Harrisburg.
Ken Gurnick is a reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.